Effects of a chronic reduction of short-wavelength light input on melatonin and sleep patterns in humans: Evidence for adaptation

Light is an important environmental stimulus for the entrainment of the circadian clock and for increasing alertness. The intrinsically photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina play an important role in transferring this light information to the circadian system and they are elicited in particular by short-wavelength light. Exposure to short wavelengths is reduced, for instance, in elderly…

The biological clock modulates the human cortisol response in a multiplicative fashion

Human cortisol levels follow a clear circadian rhythm. We investigated the contribution of alternation of sleep and wakefulness and the circadian clock, using forced desynchrony. Cortisol levels were best described by a multiplication of a circadian and a wake-time component. The human cortisol response is modulated by circadian phase. Exposure to stress at an unnatural phase, as in…